Petrogenesis of Cenozoic shoshonitic rocks in Fiji: Constraints from mineral and whole-rock geochemistry

Abstract

This paper reports mineral and whole-rock geochemical data (major and trace elements, Sr–Nd isotopes, and in situ plagioclase Sr-isotope analysis) for Cenozoic volcanic rocks from Sabeto, NW Fiji, with the aim of constraining the origin of Cenozoic shoshonitic rocks found throughout Fiji. The most mafic shoshonitic lavas (absarokites) exhibit porphyritic textures and massive structure with phenocrysts of olivine (Fo = 76–78), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 73.9–80.0), and plagioclase (An = 71.9–92.1). Major element geochemical data include SiO2 = 47.31–48.46 wt%, MgO = 4.20–5.76 wt%, Mg# = 49–51, Al2O3 = 17.64–18.93 wt%, and (Na2O + K2O) = 5.12–7.01 wt%. The trace element geochemistry is typically arc like, with enrichment in the large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), the light rare earth elements (LREEs), and P, along with depletion in the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti). Whole-rock (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios and εNd(t) values vary from 0.7037 to 0.7039 and from +7.62 to +8.45, respectively. The former is near equal to the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of plagioclase phenocrysts (0.7034–07039). Based on these geochemical data and the results of previous studies, we propose that the Sabeto shoshonitic primary magma was derived from partial melting of the depleted lithospheric mantle, modified by subduction-related fluids. The thermobarometric calculation indicates that the PT conditions of Fiji shoshonitic magma chamber are ~1100 °C and ~2.8 GPa (~90 km depth), with an average H2O fraction of ~6 wt%. In addition, the shoshonitic melts experienced fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, olivine, and plagioclase during magma evolution. These volcanic rocks formed in an extensional setting following collision of the Vitiaz arc and the Ontong Java Plateau during the Pliocene.

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