We conducted discrete numerical simulations to examine the effects of seamount collisions with forearcs along actively accreting subduction margins. Modeled seamount interactions leave behind distinctive structures in overriding forearcs that differ from those found at non-accreting margins. Whereas accretion above a planar décollement produces evenly spaced thrust faults with uniform displacements, seamounts activate one or more large-offset splay faults that accommodate substantial offset. Locally oversteepened slopes develop above the seamounts, but in contrast to non-accreting margins, the steep slopes are transient. Renewed accretion following seamount passage allows the equilibrium surface slopes to recover. Seamounts also protect incoming strata in their wake, delaying formation of new thrust faults and increasing fault spacing. Weak horizons within accreting strata allow the décollement to step up above the seamount, further protecting deeper strata and vertically partitioning wedge deformation. Notably, all modeled faults form in sequence, in contrast to out-of-sequence faults found at non-accreting margins. Similar structures found at many accretionary margins, including Nankai (offshore Japan), suggest that we may underestimate the role of seamount interactions in many locations, with implications for our assessment of subduction hazards in these settings.
Most interpretations of the stratigraphic record are founded on the premise that the depositional environments that produced it either have not changed appreciably through time, or else have changed very slowly. Paradoxically, some of the most important transitions in the sedimentary archive are those interpreted to reflect relatively rapid, comprehensive paleoenvironmental change. Recognition of the anomalous nature of such transitions is vital to accurately understanding their significance but is not systematically incorporated in current stratigraphic models. The new term “xenoconformity” is therefore proposed, and defined as a stratigraphic surface or gradational interval that records a fundamental, abrupt, and persistent change in sedimentary facies across basinal to global scales. Xenoconformities may mark major paleoenvironmental tipping points and signal transformations in how paleoenvironmental signals were transferred into the stratigraphic record.
Reconstructions of Pliocene sea-surface temperature (SST) gradients and thermocline depths suggest that the zonal temperature gradient of the tropical Pacific was distinct from the modern. However, the nature of any El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability superimposed on this mean state is difficult to determine. We developed monthly resolved multidecadal stable isotopic time series from an extremely well preserved central Caribbean coral dating to the Miocene-Pliocene transition, prior to closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS). Paleoceanographic modeling suggests that the flow of water associated with El Niño and La Niña events through the CAS allowed Caribbean corals to record the ENSO-related SST anomalies. Spectral analysis of coral oxygen isotope ratios reveals periodicities similar to modern ENSO signatures, suggesting that ENSO-like variability characterized the Miocene-Pliocene transition.
Tectonic tremors in Alaska (USA) are associated with subduction of the Yakutat plateau, but their origins are unclear due to lack of depth constraints. We have processed tremor recordings to extract low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs), and generated a set of six LFE waveform templates via iterative network matched filtering and stacking. The timing of impulsive P (compressional) wave and S (shear) wave arrivals on template waveforms places LFEs at 40–58 km depth, near the upper envelope of intraslab seismicity and immediately updip of increased levels of intraslab seismicity. S waves at near-epicentral distances display polarities consistent with shear slip on the plate boundary. We compare characteristics of LFEs, seismicity, and tectonic structures in central Alaska with those in warm subduction zones, and propose a new model for the region’s unusual intraslab seismicity and the enigmatic Denali volcanic gap (i.e., an area of no volcanism where expected). We argue that fluids in the Yakutat plate are confined to its upper crust, and that shallow subduction leads to hydromechanical conditions at the slab interface in central Alaska akin to those in warm subduction zones where similar LFEs and tremor occur. These conditions lead to fluid expulsion at shallow depths, explaining strike-parallel alignment of tremor occurrence with the Denali volcanic gap. Moreover, the lack of double seismic zone and restriction of deep intraslab seismicity to a persistent low-velocity zone are simple consequences of anhydrous conditions prevailing in the lower crust and upper mantle of the Yakutat plate.
The onset and evolution of the Dead Sea transform are re-evaluated based on new in situ U-Pb dating and strain analyses of mechanically twinned calcites. Direct dating of 30 syn-faulting calcites from 10 different inactive fault strands of the transform indicates that the oceanic-to-continental plate boundary initiated between 20.8 and 18.5 Ma within an ~10-km-wide distributed deformation zone in southern Israel. Ages from the northern Dead Sea transform (17.1–12.7 Ma) suggest northward propagation and the establishment of a well-developed >500-km-long plate-bounding fault in 3 m.y. The dominant horizontal shortening direction recorded in the dated twinned calcites marks the onset of left-lateral motion along the evolving plate boundary. The observed changes in the strain field within individual fault strands cannot be simply explained by local “weakening effects” along strands of the Dead Sea transform or by gradual changes in the Euler pole through time.
The Tethyan orogen is host to numerous porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au deposits, but the majority formed during subduction of the Neo-Tethyan ocean basin in the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic; very few deposits have been found associated with Paleo-Tethyan subduction. We propose that this sparsity is due to widespread anoxia in the Paleo-Tethyan ocean basin, leading to the generation of relatively reduced arc magmas that were infertile for porphyry Cu formation. A compilation of published geochemical data indicates that Neo-Tethyan arc rocks have higher average Cu contents and V/Sc and Sr/Y ratios compared to Paleo-Tethyan rocks, indicating higher magmatic oxidation states and greater fertility for ore formation during Neo-Tethyan subduction. Subduction of relatively reduced oceanic lithosphere, or reduction of normal moderately oxidized arc magmas by interaction with reduced lithosphere, can therefore destroy the ore-forming potential of arc magmatic suites.
Living species retain memories of their evolutionary history in their DNA, and that evolutionary history commonly reflects distinct geological events, such as mountain building and glaciation. We synthesize previously documented genetic data for freshwater fishes and a wide range of upland insect and bird species to document the Pliocene and early Pleistocene topographic and glacial history of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Genetic data for fish suggest that a long, linear mountain chain was established in the Pliocene. At that time, the mountain chain had a tectonically constructed narrow topographic neck in the middle, with wider uplift zones at either end. Separation of populations of upland insects and birds into faunal zones at the wider ends was caused by a major glacial advance at the narrow tectonic neck at 2 ± 0.5 Ma. The composite biological memory constrains the relative timing of uplift of the Southern Alps as a linear mountain chain, with subsequent imposition of temperate glaciation during Pliocene-Pleistocene cooling in the Southern Hemisphere.
In the ~20-m-thick Maiden Creek sill of the Henry Mountains (Utah, USA) intrusive complex, 2 magma sheets are locally separated by a 1.5-m-thick lens of sandstone. We studied the boundary between these sheets at the termination of this sandstone lens, where the upper sheet directly overlies the lower sheet, in order to test the reliability of using magnetic susceptibility in delineating internal magmatic contacts. The contact between these two sheets is along a cliff face and defined by a thin (<1 cm) brittle-ductile shear zone. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility (K) were collected within a grid every 20 cm across this contact. Drill cores (72) were also collected along four traverses across the shear zone. Mapping K across the cliff face reveals an abrupt decrease immediately below the shear zone contact. 1 m below the contact, K unexpectedly increases again to the same levels observed above the contact. This lower boundary coincides with a 1–2-mm-thick minor fracture zone. The 1-m-thick low-K zone (LKZ) is characterized by more intense microfracturing and is bleached compared to the surrounding igneous rock. Plotting the magnetic foliation from the drill cores reveals abrupt changes to the orientation across both the shear zone and fracture zone. We hypothesize that the LKZ was the original magma sheet that intruded the sandstone. The high-K zones above and below the LKZ represent later sheets that intruded above and below the original sheet, fracturing the partially or wholly crystallized original intrusion. These later sheets exsolved fluids that were injected into the original sheet, resulting in more advanced oxidation of magnetite and thus lowering the K. Alternatively, it is possible that the LKZ is simply the altered zone at the top of a thicker older sheet that was modified by the intrusion of a younger overlying sheet.