Influence on the oil‐gas accumulation potential of the laminated algal micritic dolomite in Jixian system from Mesozoic magmatic activities at the south‐western margin of the Ordos Basin, China

The Mesoproterozoic Jixian System is widely distributed at the south‐western margin of the Ordos Basin. It is mainly dominated by siliceous laminated algal micritic dolomite that is a set of potential carbonate source rocks. The magmatic activities at the south‐western margin of the Ordos Basin were frequent and intensive, and the Tongcheng intrusion exposed in this area has an intrusive contact relationship with the Jixian System. This paper uses geochemical methods to study the influence of magmatism to lithology, physical properties, hydrocarbon generating property, and geochemistry of the Jixian System. Analysis data reveal that, with the increasing distance to the intrusion, the porosity, permeability, and content of dolomite, trace elements, and rare earth elements in surrounding rock decrease while the density and silica content increase gradually. In addition, the parameters have a weakening trend about adsorbed hydrocarbon (S1), pyrolysis hydrocarbon (S2), hydrocarbon generating potential (S1 + S2), and pyrolysis peak temperature (Tmax). The results suggest that the magmatic hydrothermalism and the thermal effect of magmatic intrusion changed the physical and geochemical characteristics of the surrounding rock and promoted the hydrocarbon generation of organic matter. However, these characteristics reflect that the magmatic activities only have a relatively small effect on the laminated algal micritic dolomite in Jixian System without a destructive effect at the south‐western margin of the Ordos Basin. The petroleum potential of the Jixian System is worthy to be further explored.

Organic-walled microfossils from the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary stratotype section, Chapel Island and Random formations, Burin Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada: Global correlation and significance for the evolution of early complex ecosystems

Although a variety of trace and body fossils have been described from the Cambrian strata in the stratotype section (global stratotype section and point) of the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in the Burin Peninsula, Newfoundland, a detailed analysis of its organic-walled microfossils has been missing. The basal Cambrian Treptichnus pedum Ichnozone of the Chapel Island Formation is dominated by leiosphaerids and filamentous sheaths. The appearance of Granomarginata approximates the base of the overlying Rusophycus avalonensis Ichnozone. Common process-bearing acritarchs, represented by small Asteridium and Comasphaeridium, first appear in the middle of the overlying Random Formation, and a more diverse acritarch assemblage at its top. The Random Formation also yields small carbonaceous metazoan fossils, the first report of this type of fossil in this formation. The initial low diversity of phytoplankton in the basal Cambrian strata, a holdover from Ediacaran extinctions, indicated that they have limited potential for precise global correlation of the global stratotype section and point. The pattern of increasing diversity of acritarchs through the lower Fortunian strata lagged behind and was potentially a response to the Cambrian radiation of metazoans, as most clearly represented by ichnofossils. The timing of phytoplankton radiation reflects a dynamic lag driven by metazoan-induced changes in early Cambrian food webs.

Organic‐walled microfossils from the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary stratotype section, Chapel Island and Random formations, Burin Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada: Global correlation and significance for the evolution of early complex ecosystems

Although a variety of trace and body fossils have been described from the Cambrian strata in the stratotype section (global stratotype section and point) of the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in the Burin Peninsula, Newfoundland, a detailed analysis of its organic‐walled microfossils has been missing. The basal Cambrian Treptichnus pedum Ichnozone of the Chapel Island Formation is dominated by leiosphaerids and filamentous sheaths. The appearance of Granomarginata approximates the base of the overlying Rusophycus avalonensis Ichnozone. Common process‐bearing acritarchs, represented by small Asteridium and Comasphaeridium, first appear in the middle of the overlying Random Formation, and a more diverse acritarch assemblage at its top. The Random Formation also yields small carbonaceous metazoan fossils, the first report of this type of fossil in this formation. The initial low diversity of phytoplankton in the basal Cambrian strata, a holdover from Ediacaran extinctions, indicated that they have limited potential for precise global correlation of the global stratotype section and point. The pattern of increasing diversity of acritarchs through the lower Fortunian strata lagged behind and was potentially a response to the Cambrian radiation of metazoans, as most clearly represented by ichnofossils. The timing of phytoplankton radiation reflects a dynamic lag driven by metazoan‐induced changes in early Cambrian food webs.

Zircon U–Pb age, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of the Baolige granite complex in the Great Hingan Range, NE China

The Solonker zone is widely accepted as the suture between the North China Craton and the Siberia–Mongolia continental plate. The Baolige granite complex is located to the north side of the Solonker Suture and is mainly composed of monzogranite and granite. Zircon U–Pb ages, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data of the Baolige granites were presented to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic settings. Two monzogranite samples from Baolige yielded weighted mean zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 310.7 ± 2.1 Ma (mean square of weighted deviates (MSWD) = 1.3) and 307.4 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.77), whereas the granite intruded into the monzogranite yielded an age of 296.2 ± 2.0 Ma (MSWD = 1.2). Both the Baolige monzogranite and granite contain high contents of SiO2, K2O, and Al2O3, low contents of TiO2, MgO, and CaO, and are peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline. These rocks are characterized by enrichments of K, Rb, U, Pb, Th, and light rare earth elements and depletions of Nb, Ta, Ti, and heavy rare earth elements and contain slightly negative or no Eu anomalies, similar to typical arc-related granitoids. The Ti-in-zircon thermometry yielded 650–759 °C for the monzogranite and 645–796 °C for the granite. The monzogranite shows positive zircon εHf(t) values (4.7–13.2) and whole-rock εNd(t) values (3.6–5.2), with TDM2(Hf) ages of 1,324–557 Ma and TDM2(Nd) ages of 1,015–821 Ma, and ISr of 0.70363–0.70386. The granite shows εHf(t) values of 15.6–20.9 and εNd(t) values of 4.0–5.1, with TDM2(Nd) ages of 957–832 Ma, and ISr of 0.70364–0.70406. Geochemical evidence indicates that the Baolige granite complex is highly fractionated I-type and was likely formed by partial melting of the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust in a continental arc setting. We concluded that the Paleo-Asian Ocean may have undergone north-dipping subduction beneath the Siberia–Mongolia continental plate during the Late Carboniferous, and the subduction may have continued to the Early Permian (ca. 296 Ma).

Zircon U–Pb age, geochemistry and Sr‐Nd‐Hf isotopes of the Baolige granite complex in the Great Hingan Range, NE China

The Solonker zone is widely accepted as the suture between the North China Craton and the Siberia–Mongolia continental plate. The Baolige granite complex is located to the north side of the Solonker Suture and is mainly composed of monzogranite and granite. Zircon U–Pb ages, geochemistry, and Sr‐Nd‐Hf isotopic data of the Baolige granites were presented to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic settings. Two monzogranite samples from Baolige yielded weighted mean zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 310.7 ± 2.1 Ma (mean square of weighted deviates (MSWD) = 1.3) and 307.4 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.77), whereas the granite intruded into the monzogranite yielded an age of 296.2 ± 2.0 Ma (MSWD = 1.2). Both the Baolige monzogranite and granite contain high contents of SiO2, K2O, and Al2O3, low contents of TiO2, MgO, and CaO, and are peraluminous high‐K calc‐alkaline. These rocks are characterized by enrichments of K, Rb, U, Pb, Th, and light rare earth elements and depletions of Nb, Ta, Ti, and heavy rare earth elements and contain slightly negative or no Eu anomalies, similar to typical arc‐related granitoids. The Ti‐in‐zircon thermometry yielded 650–759 °C for the monzogranite and 645–796 °C for the granite. The monzogranite shows positive zircon εHf(t) values (4.7–13.2) and whole‐rock εNd(t) values (3.6–5.2), with TDM2(Hf) ages of 1,324–557 Ma and TDM2(Nd) ages of 1,015–821 Ma, and ISr of 0.70363–0.70386. The granite shows εHf(t) values of 15.6–20.9 and εNd(t) values of 4.0–5.1, with TDM2(Nd) ages of 957–832 Ma, and ISr of 0.70364–0.70406. Geochemical evidence indicates that the Baolige granite complex is highly fractionated I‐type and was likely formed by partial melting of the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust in a continental arc setting. We concluded that the Paleo‐Asian Ocean may have undergone north‐dipping subduction beneath the Siberia–Mongolia continental plate during the Late Carboniferous, and the subduction may have continued to the Early Permian (ca. 296 Ma).

Geochronological and geochemical signatures of the granitic rocks emplaced at the north-eastern fringe of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, South India: Implications for late Archean crustal growth

Geochemical and zircon U–Pb age data on granites of the Chitrial area, situated at the NE part of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, are presented to elucidate their petrogenesis, time(s) of emplacement, and role in crust formation. Based on field and geochemical characters, these granites are classified as alkali feldspar/monzo-granite. Whole-rock data of selected samples show evolved calc-alkaline and peraluminous characters with high SiO2, K2O, large-ion lithophile element, and light rare earth elements (LREE), depleted heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and strongly negative Eu anomaly. One sample shows slightly different character with low SiO2, enriched light rare earth elements, and depleted heavy rare earth elements without Eu anomaly. Geochemical analyses suggest that the rocks are S-type granite with syn-collisional and volcanic arc signatures. These granites define a coherent trend favouring low pressure crystallization of the magma. U–Pb zircon data show that the crystallization ages of the granites vary within 2514 ± 10 to 2525 ± 24 Ma. The geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Dharwar Craton is discussed wherein subduction and deep burial of sediment is envisaged to cause partial melting and granite genesis in the craton.

Geochronological and geochemical signatures of the granitic rocks emplaced at the north‐eastern fringe of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, South India: Implications for late Archean crustal growth

Geochemical and zircon U–Pb age data on granites of the Chitrial area, situated at the NE part of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, are presented to elucidate their petrogenesis, time(s) of emplacement, and role in crust formation. Based on field and geochemical characters, these granites are classified as alkali feldspar/monzo‐granite. Whole‐rock data of selected samples show evolved calc‐alkaline and peraluminous characters with high SiO2, K2O, large‐ion lithophile element, and light rare earth elements (LREE), depleted heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and strongly negative Eu anomaly. One sample shows slightly different character with low SiO2, enriched light rare earth elements, and depleted heavy rare earth elements without Eu anomaly. Geochemical analyses suggest that the rocks are S‐type granite with syn‐collisional and volcanic arc signatures. These granites define a coherent trend favouring low pressure crystallization of the magma. U–Pb zircon data show that the crystallization ages of the granites vary within 2514 ± 10 to 2525 ± 24 Ma. The geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Dharwar Craton is discussed wherein subduction and deep burial of sediment is envisaged to cause partial melting and granite genesis in the craton.

Geochemical characteristics, depositional environment, and controlling factors of Lower Cretaceous shales in Chagan Sag, Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin

The Lower Cretaceous shales of Chagan Sag, Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin, are considered as the source rocks of hydrocarbons discovered in the sag. Borehole shales from the Lower Cretaceous were subjected to comprehensive geochemical study to evaluate the quality of source rock, to reconstruct the paleodepositional environment and to determine the controlling factors of organic matter enrichment. Content of present-day total organic carbon, and hydrogen index, averaging 1.4% and 259.2 mg hydrocarbon/g total organic carbon, respectively reveal poor to fair quality of organic matter. Average value of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 1.0% indicates mature organic matter. Maceral composition and biomarker analysis provide evidence for a mixed aquatic and terrigeous organic matter input. Based on Sr/Cu, Sr/Ba, and gammacerane index, we propose that organic matter was deposited in closed hypersaline under hot and arid climate conditions. The ratios of V/(V + Ni), and pristane/phytane (Pr/Ph), as well as the presence of β-carotene suggest a stratified water column with anoxic bottom water condition. Low to moderate productivity as a result of deficient nutrient supply, the excellent organic matter preservation condition under stratified anoxic water column and high sedimentary rate controlled the quality of source rock. In addition, influence of factors such as content of clay minerals on organic matter enrichment cannot be ignored.

Geochemical characteristics, depositional environment, and controlling factors of Lower Cretaceous shales in Chagan Sag, Yingen‐Ejinaqi Basin

The Lower Cretaceous shales of Chagan Sag, Yingen‐Ejinaqi Basin, are considered as the source rocks of hydrocarbons discovered in the sag. Borehole shales from the Lower Cretaceous were subjected to comprehensive geochemical study to evaluate the quality of source rock, to reconstruct the paleodepositional environment and to determine the controlling factors of organic matter enrichment. Content of present‐day total organic carbon, and hydrogen index, averaging 1.4% and 259.2 mg hydrocarbon/g total organic carbon, respectively reveal poor to fair quality of organic matter. Average value of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 1.0% indicates mature organic matter. Maceral composition and biomarker analysis provide evidence for a mixed aquatic and terrigeous organic matter input. Based on Sr/Cu, Sr/Ba, and gammacerane index, we propose that organic matter was deposited in closed hypersaline under hot and arid climate conditions. The ratios of V/(V + Ni), and pristane/phytane (Pr/Ph), as well as the presence of β‐carotene suggest a stratified water column with anoxic bottom water condition. Low to moderate productivity as a result of deficient nutrient supply, the excellent organic matter preservation condition under stratified anoxic water column and high sedimentary rate controlled the quality of source rock. In addition, influence of factors such as content of clay minerals on organic matter enrichment cannot be ignored.

Ecological water requirement of plant–soil systems along the Silk Road Economic Belt: A case study of the Guanzhong–Tianshui region, China

“The Belt and Road” refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st‐Century Maritime Silk Road. In this paper, the Guanzhong–Tianshui region is selected as a case study, which is located at the starting point of the Silk Road Economic Belt. First, the spatial distribution maps of plant and soil types are obtained based on the TM remote sensing images and the soil texture data. The boundaries of the third‐level watershed are extracted based on the digital elevation model data. Then the corresponding mathematical models are used to evaluate the ecological water requirements of the plant–soil systems. Also, the spatial distribution characteristics are analysed at the landscape scale and the third‐level watershed scale. The results show that the spatial differences of ecological water requirement in the Guanzhong–Tianshui are obvious. At the plant–soil landscape scale, the ecological water requirement per unit area of the woodland‐clay loam is the highest, about 0.4777 m3/m2, while that of the grassland‐gravel loam is the lowest, about 0.2813 m3/m2. At the third‐level watershed scale, the ecological water requirement per unit area in the Weihe watershed (Jinghezhangjiashan above) is the highest, about 0.4123 m3/m2, while that in the Weihe watershed (Longmen to Sanmenxia) is the lowest, about 0.3002 m3/m2. The study offers scientific references for the regional ecological environment protection and ecosystem management.